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- PDB-6scj: The structure of human thyroglobulin -

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Basic information

Entry
Database: PDB / ID: 6scj
TitleThe structure of human thyroglobulin
ComponentsThyroglobulin
KeywordsHORMONE / Thyroglobulin / Thyroid / thyroid hormones / Tri-iodo-thyronine / Thyroxine
Function / homology
Function and homology information


iodide transport / thyroid hormone metabolic process / hormone biosynthetic process / regulation of myelination / thyroid gland development / hormone activity / signal transduction / extracellular region
Thyroglobulin type-1 / Carboxylesterase, type B / Tyrosine-protein kinase ephrin type A/B receptor-like / Thyroglobulin / Carboxylesterase type B, conserved site / Alpha/Beta hydrolase fold / Thyroglobulin type-1 superfamily
Thyroglobulin
Biological speciesHomo sapiens (human)
MethodELECTRON MICROSCOPY / single particle reconstruction / cryo EM / Resolution: 3.6 Å
AuthorsCoscia, F. / Turk, D. / Lowe, J.
Funding support United Kingdom, 2items
OrganizationGrant numberCountry
Medical Research Council (United Kingdom)U105184326 to JL United Kingdom
Wellcome Trust202754/Z/16/Z to JL United Kingdom
CitationJournal: Nature / Year: 2020
Title: The structure of human thyroglobulin.
Authors: Francesca Coscia / Ajda Taler-Verčič / Veronica T Chang / Ludwig Sinn / Francis J O'Reilly / Thierry Izoré / Miha Renko / Imre Berger / Juri Rappsilber / Dušan Turk / Jan Löwe /
Abstract: Thyroglobulin (TG) is the protein precursor of thyroid hormones, which are essential for growth, development and the control of metabolism in vertebrates. Hormone synthesis from TG occurs in the ...Thyroglobulin (TG) is the protein precursor of thyroid hormones, which are essential for growth, development and the control of metabolism in vertebrates. Hormone synthesis from TG occurs in the thyroid gland via the iodination and coupling of pairs of tyrosines, and is completed by TG proteolysis. Tyrosine proximity within TG is thought to enable the coupling reaction but hormonogenic tyrosines have not been clearly identified, and the lack of a three-dimensional structure of TG has prevented mechanistic understanding. Here we present the structure of full-length human thyroglobulin at a resolution of approximately 3.5 Å, determined by cryo-electron microscopy. We identified all of the hormonogenic tyrosine pairs in the structure, and verified them using site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro hormone-production assays using human TG expressed in HEK293T cells. Our analysis revealed that the proximity, flexibility and solvent exposure of the tyrosines are the key characteristics of hormonogenic sites. We transferred the reaction sites from TG to an engineered tyrosine donor-acceptor pair in the unrelated bacterial maltose-binding protein (MBP), which yielded hormone production with an efficiency comparable to that of TG. Our study provides a framework to further understand the production and regulation of thyroid hormones.
Validation Report
SummaryFull reportAbout validation report
History
DepositionJul 24, 2019Deposition site: PDBE / Processing site: PDBE
Revision 1.0Feb 12, 2020Provider: repository / Type: Initial release

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Structure visualization

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Assembly

Deposited unit
A: Thyroglobulin
B: Thyroglobulin
hetero molecules


Theoretical massNumber of molelcules
Total (without water)618,02138
Polymers610,1402
Non-polymers7,88136
Water0
1


TypeNameSymmetry operationNumber
identity operation1_5551
Buried area29540 Å2
ΔGint18 kcal/mol
Surface area238810 Å2
MethodPISA

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Components

#1: Protein Thyroglobulin / / Tg


Mass: 305069.844 Da / Num. of mol.: 2
Source method: isolated from a genetically manipulated source
Source: (gene. exp.) Homo sapiens (human) / Gene: TG / Cell line (production host): HEK / Production host: Homo sapiens (human) / Variant (production host): 293T / References: UniProt: P01266
#2: Sugar...
ChemComp-NAG / N-ACETYL-D-GLUCOSAMINE / N-Acetylglucosamine


Mass: 221.208 Da / Num. of mol.: 34
Source method: isolated from a genetically manipulated source
Formula: C8H15NO6 / Feature type: SUBJECT OF INVESTIGATION
#3: Sugar ChemComp-BMA / BETA-D-MANNOSE / Mannose


Mass: 180.156 Da / Num. of mol.: 2
Source method: isolated from a genetically manipulated source
Formula: C6H12O6 / Feature type: SUBJECT OF INVESTIGATION
Has ligand of interestY

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Experimental details

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Experiment

ExperimentMethod: ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
EM experimentAggregation state: PARTICLE / 3D reconstruction method: single particle reconstruction

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Sample preparation

ComponentName: human thyroglobulin / Type: COMPLEX / Details: dimeric / Entity ID: 1 / Source: RECOMBINANT
Molecular weightValue: 0.660 MDa / Experimental value: YES
Source (natural)Organism: Homo sapiens (human)
Source (recombinant)Organism: Homo sapiens (human)
Buffer solutionpH: 8 / Details: TRIS 0.05M, 0.2M NaCl pH 8
SpecimenConc.: 0.05 mg/ml / Embedding applied: NO / Shadowing applied: NO / Staining applied: NO / Vitrification applied: YES
VitrificationInstrument: FEI VITROBOT MARK III / Cryogen name: ETHANE

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Electron microscopy imaging

Experimental equipment
Model: Titan Krios / Image courtesy: FEI Company
MicroscopyModel: FEI TITAN KRIOS
Electron gunElectron source: FIELD EMISSION GUN / Accelerating voltage: 300 kV / Illumination mode: FLOOD BEAM
Electron lensMode: BRIGHT FIELDBright-field microscopy
Image recordingElectron dose: 40 e/Å2 / Detector mode: COUNTING / Film or detector model: GATAN K2 SUMMIT (4k x 4k)

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Processing

SoftwareName: PHENIX / Version: (1.14rc2_3191: phenix.real_space_refine) / Classification: refinement
CTF correctionType: PHASE FLIPPING AND AMPLITUDE CORRECTION
SymmetryPoint symmetry: C2 (2 fold cyclic)
3D reconstructionResolution: 3.6 Å / Resolution method: FSC 0.143 CUT-OFF / Num. of particles: 151601 / Symmetry type: POINT

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