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- PDB-6scj: The structure of human thyroglobulin -

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Database: PDB / ID: 6scj
TitleThe structure of human thyroglobulin
KeywordsHORMONE / Thyroglobulin / Thyroid / thyroid hormones / Tri-iodo-thyronine / Thyroxine
Function / homology
Function and homology information

iodide transport / hormone biosynthetic process / thyroid hormone generation / regulation of myelination / thyroid gland development / hormone activity / signal transduction / extracellular space / extracellular region / identical protein binding
Thyroglobulin type-1 / Thyroglobulin type-1 superfamily / Carboxylesterase, type B / Tyrosine-protein kinase ephrin type A/B receptor-like / Thyroglobulin / Carboxylesterase type B, conserved site / Alpha/Beta hydrolase fold
Thyroglobulin / polysac:dmanpb1-4dglcpnacb1-4dglcpnacb1-:
Biological speciesHomo sapiens (human)
MethodELECTRON MICROSCOPY / single particle reconstruction / cryo EM / Resolution: 3.6 Å
AuthorsCoscia, F. / Turk, D. / Lowe, J.
Funding support United Kingdom, 2items
OrganizationGrant numberCountry
Medical Research Council (United Kingdom)U105184326 to JL United Kingdom
Wellcome Trust202754/Z/16/Z to JL United Kingdom
CitationJournal: Nature / Year: 2020
Title: The structure of human thyroglobulin.
Authors: Francesca Coscia / Ajda Taler-Verčič / Veronica T Chang / Ludwig Sinn / Francis J O'Reilly / Thierry Izoré / Miha Renko / Imre Berger / Juri Rappsilber / Dušan Turk / Jan Löwe /
Abstract: Thyroglobulin (TG) is the protein precursor of thyroid hormones, which are essential for growth, development and the control of metabolism in vertebrates. Hormone synthesis from TG occurs in the ...Thyroglobulin (TG) is the protein precursor of thyroid hormones, which are essential for growth, development and the control of metabolism in vertebrates. Hormone synthesis from TG occurs in the thyroid gland via the iodination and coupling of pairs of tyrosines, and is completed by TG proteolysis. Tyrosine proximity within TG is thought to enable the coupling reaction but hormonogenic tyrosines have not been clearly identified, and the lack of a three-dimensional structure of TG has prevented mechanistic understanding. Here we present the structure of full-length human thyroglobulin at a resolution of approximately 3.5 Å, determined by cryo-electron microscopy. We identified all of the hormonogenic tyrosine pairs in the structure, and verified them using site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro hormone-production assays using human TG expressed in HEK293T cells. Our analysis revealed that the proximity, flexibility and solvent exposure of the tyrosines are the key characteristics of hormonogenic sites. We transferred the reaction sites from TG to an engineered tyrosine donor-acceptor pair in the unrelated bacterial maltose-binding protein (MBP), which yielded hormone production with an efficiency comparable to that of TG. Our study provides a framework to further understand the production and regulation of thyroid hormones.
Validation Report
SummaryFull reportAbout validation report
DepositionJul 24, 2019Deposition site: PDBE / Processing site: PDBE
Revision 1.0Feb 12, 2020Provider: repository / Type: Initial release
Revision 1.1Feb 19, 2020Group: Database references / Category: citation / citation_author
Item: _citation.journal_id_CSD / _citation.pdbx_database_id_PubMed / _citation.title
Revision 1.2Mar 4, 2020Group: Database references / Category: citation
Item: _citation.journal_volume / _citation.page_first / _citation.page_last
Revision 2.0Jul 29, 2020Group: Atomic model / Data collection ...Atomic model / Data collection / Derived calculations / Structure summary
Category: atom_site / chem_comp ...atom_site / chem_comp / entity / pdbx_branch_scheme / pdbx_chem_comp_identifier / pdbx_entity_branch / pdbx_entity_branch_descriptor / pdbx_entity_branch_link / pdbx_entity_branch_list / pdbx_entity_nonpoly / pdbx_nonpoly_scheme / pdbx_struct_assembly_gen / struct_asym / struct_conn / struct_site / struct_site_gen
Item: _atom_site.B_iso_or_equiv / _atom_site.Cartn_x ..._atom_site.B_iso_or_equiv / _atom_site.Cartn_x / _atom_site.Cartn_y / _atom_site.Cartn_z / _atom_site.auth_asym_id / _atom_site.auth_atom_id / _atom_site.auth_comp_id / _atom_site.auth_seq_id / _atom_site.label_asym_id / _atom_site.label_atom_id / _atom_site.label_comp_id / _atom_site.label_entity_id / _atom_site.type_symbol / _chem_comp.name / _entity.formula_weight / _entity.pdbx_description / _entity.pdbx_number_of_molecules / _entity.type / _pdbx_struct_assembly_gen.asym_id_list / _struct_conn.pdbx_role / _struct_conn.ptnr1_auth_asym_id / _struct_conn.ptnr1_auth_seq_id / _struct_conn.ptnr1_label_asym_id / _struct_conn.ptnr2_auth_asym_id / _struct_conn.ptnr2_auth_seq_id / _struct_conn.ptnr2_label_asym_id
Description: Carbohydrate remediation / Provider: repository / Type: Remediation

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Deposited unit
A: Thyroglobulin
B: Thyroglobulin
hetero molecules

Theoretical massNumber of molelcules
Total (without water)617,94934

TypeNameSymmetry operationNumber
identity operation1_5551
Buried area29540 Å2
ΔGint18 kcal/mol
Surface area238810 Å2


#1: Protein Thyroglobulin / / Tg

Mass: 305069.844 Da / Num. of mol.: 2
Source method: isolated from a genetically manipulated source
Source: (gene. exp.) Homo sapiens (human) / Gene: TG / Cell line (production host): HEK / Production host: Homo sapiens (human) / Variant (production host): 293T / References: UniProt: P01266
#2: Polysaccharide beta-D-mannopyranose-(1-4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose-(1-4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta- ...beta-D-mannopyranose-(1-4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose-(1-4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose

Type: oligosaccharide / Mass: 586.542 Da / Num. of mol.: 2
Source method: isolated from a genetically manipulated source
DManpb1-4DGlcpNAcb1-4DGlcpNAcb1-Glycam Condensed SequenceGMML 1.0
WURCS=2.0/2,3,2/[a2122h-1b_1-5_2*NCC/3=O][a1122h-1b_1-5]/1-1-2/a4-b1_b4-c1WURCSPDB2Glycan 1.1.0
#3: Sugar...
ChemComp-NAG / 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose / N-Acetylglucosamine

Type: D-saccharide, beta linking / Mass: 221.208 Da / Num. of mol.: 30
Source method: isolated from a genetically manipulated source
Formula: C8H15NO6 / Feature type: SUBJECT OF INVESTIGATION
N-acetyl-b-D-glucopyranosamineCOMMON NAMEGMML 1.0
Has ligand of interestY

Experimental details


EM experimentAggregation state: PARTICLE / 3D reconstruction method: single particle reconstruction

Sample preparation

ComponentName: human thyroglobulin / Type: COMPLEX / Details: dimeric / Entity ID: #1 / Source: RECOMBINANT
Molecular weightValue: 0.660 MDa / Experimental value: YES
Source (natural)Organism: Homo sapiens (human)
Source (recombinant)Organism: Homo sapiens (human)
Buffer solutionpH: 8 / Details: TRIS 0.05M, 0.2M NaCl pH 8
SpecimenConc.: 0.05 mg/ml / Embedding applied: NO / Shadowing applied: NO / Staining applied: NO / Vitrification applied: YES
VitrificationInstrument: FEI VITROBOT MARK III / Cryogen name: ETHANE

Electron microscopy imaging

Experimental equipment
Model: Titan Krios / Image courtesy: FEI Company
MicroscopyModel: FEI TITAN KRIOS
Electron gunElectron source: FIELD EMISSION GUN / Accelerating voltage: 300 kV / Illumination mode: FLOOD BEAM
Electron lensMode: BRIGHT FIELDBright-field microscopy
Image recordingElectron dose: 40 e/Å2 / Detector mode: COUNTING / Film or detector model: GATAN K2 SUMMIT (4k x 4k)


SoftwareName: PHENIX / Version: (1.14rc2_3191: phenix.real_space_refine) / Classification: refinement
SymmetryPoint symmetry: C2 (2 fold cyclic)
3D reconstructionResolution: 3.6 Å / Resolution method: FSC 0.143 CUT-OFF / Num. of particles: 151601 / Symmetry type: POINT

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