このページはRCSBの David S. Goodsell博士による「Molecule of the Month」2003年4月の記事を日本語に訳したものです。転載・引用については利用規約をご覧下さい。
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:翻訳 工藤高裕 (PDBj)

情報伝達のためだけではない

転写を行っているRNAポリメラーゼ(PDB:1i6h)

RNAは万能の分子である。最もよく知られている役割は、DNAからの遺伝情報をタンパク質合成機械へ運ぶ仲介者としての役割である。ところがRNAは更に活動的な役割も担っていて、通常はタンパク質が行う触媒、認識といった機能の多くはRNAによっても行われている。実際、細胞内にあるRNAのほとんどは、我々のタンパク質合成機械である リボソーム と、成長するタンパク質に新しいアミノ酸を付加するのに使われる 転移RNA 分子で見られる。更に、数え切れないほどの小さなRNA分子が伝令RNA(messenger RNA)の定常的な流れの制御、処理、排出に関わっている。RNAポリメラーゼは、これら異なる種類のRNA分子全てを作り出す重要な責任を果たしている。

RNA工場

RNAポリメラーゼは多くの可動部分を持つ巨大な工場である。ここに示した一例はPDBエントリー 1i6h の酵母細胞から得られたものである。これは何十種類ものタンパク質で構成されている。それらが一緒になって、DNA鎖を取り囲み、ねじれを解き、DNAが持つ情報に基づいてRNA鎖を作る機械を構築する。酵素が動作を始めると、DNAに沿って着実に進行し何千ヌクレオチドにもなるRNA鎖を作り出す。

正確さ

ご想像の通り、RNAポリメラーゼが遺伝情報を複製するには正確さが必要とされる。正確さを向上させるため、RNA鎖を作る時に簡単な校正作業を行う。この酵素の活性部位は成長中のRNA鎖にヌクレオチドを付加できるだけでなく、除去することもできるよう設計されている。酵素は、正しく付加されたヌクレオチドからはみ出して組み合わさっていない部分の周囲をうろつき、その部分を除去するのに時間を割く。ただこの過程は幾分無駄が多い、なぜなら正しいヌクレオチドも時折除去されるからである。しかしこれはより良いRNA転写物を作るために払う対価としては安いものである。全体として、RNAポリメラーゼは10,000ヌクレオチドを付加するごと、あるいはRNA鎖1本を作るごとに約1回の誤りを起こす。

ポリメラーゼを毒する

α-アマニチンが結合したRNAポリメラーゼ(PDB:1k83)

RNAポリメラーゼは細胞の生存に絶対不可欠なものであるため、毒物によく反応する攻撃対象となる。このような毒物の中で最も強力なものはα-アマニチン(alpha-amanitin)で、これはタマゴテングタケ(death cap mushroom)によってつくられる小さな環状ペプチドである。この類のキノコを食べると数日中にけいれんを起こし死に至ってしまうが、これはこの毒素が身体中のRNAポリメラーゼを攻撃するからである。なお驚くべきことに、RNAポリメラーゼにおいてこの毒素が結合する部位は、活性部位ともDNAやRNAが結合する結合部位とも離れた反対側にある。つまり、よくある阻害剤のように活性部位を物理的に阻害しているのではなく、酵素が働く仕組みを阻害しているのである。RNAポリメラーゼは、DNAに結合し、ねじれをほどき、RNA鎖を作り上げるという一連の過程を進める途中、曲がったり形が変化したりする可動性の高い酵素である。PDBエントリー 1k83 で見られるように、毒素はタンパク質が持つ2つのサブユニットの間に結合し、2つをくっつけて酵素の働きに不可欠な可動性を阻害している。

構造を見る

バクテリオファージT7のRNAポリメラーゼ

PDBエントリー 1msw はRNAポリメラーゼが活動している様子を示す見事な構造を含んでいる。この構造に含まれるのは、バクテリオファージT7(bacteriophage T7)が作った非常に小さなRNAポリメラーゼ(青い管で示した部分)である。2本のDNA鎖と1本のRNA鎖でできた小さな転写泡(transcription bubble)が活性部位に結合している。2本のDNA鎖がどのように図の上部で二重らせんを形成しているのかに注目して欲しい。酵素はDNA鎖を真ん中で分け、右のDNA鎖を使ってRNA鎖を作る。そして最終的にDNA鎖を元の二重らせんへと戻している(図下部)。

2003年4月にPDBに登録されていたRNAポリメラーゼの構造一覧をこちらのリストに掲載しています。

2003年4月にPDBに登録されていたRNAポリメラーゼの構造一覧
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PDB ID Title Authors Publication Year Journal Name Volume No First Page Pubmed ID
17ra NMR structure and dynamics of an RNA motif common to the spliceosome branch-point helix and the RNA-binding site for phage GA coat protein. J.S.Smith, E.P.Nikonowicz 1998 Biochemistry 37 13486 9753434
1a1d Eukaryotic RNA polymerase subunit RPB8 is a new relative of the OB family. S.Krapp, G.Kelly, J.Reischl, R.O.Weinzierl, S.Matthews 1998 Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 110 9461075
1afx Solution structure of the loop B domain from the hairpin ribozyme. S.E.Butcher, F.H.Allain, J.Feigon 1999 Nat. Struct. Biol. 6 212 10074938
1ajf Solution structure of a metal-binding site in the major groove of RNA complexed with cobalt (III) hexammine. J.S.Kieft, I.Tinoco Jr. 1997 Structure 5 713 9195889
1ajl Solution conformation of a five-nucleotide RNA bulge loop from a group I intron. K.J.Luebke, S.M.Landry, I.Tinoco Jr. 1997 Biochemistry 36 10246 9254623
1ajt
1aro Structure of T7 RNA polymerase complexed to the transcriptional inhibitor T7 lysozyme. D.Jeruzalmi, T.A.Steitz 1998 EMBO J. 17 4101 9670025
1aud Structural basis of the RNA-binding specificity of human U1A protein. F.H.Allain, P.W.Howe, D.Neuhaus, G.Varani 1997 EMBO J. 16 5764 9312034
1auz Solution structure of SpoIIAA, a phosphorylatable component of the system that regulates transcription factor sigmaF of Bacillus subtilis. H.Kovacs, D.Comfort, M.Lord, I.D.Campbell, M.D.Yudkin 1998 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 95 5067 9560229
1buz
1bdf Structure of the Escherichia Coli RNA Polymerase Alpha Subunit Amino-Terminal Domain G.Zhang, S.A.Darst 1998 Science 281 262 9657722
1bgz NMR structure determination of the binding site for ribosomal protein S8 from Escherichia coli 16 S rRNA. K.Kalurachchi, E.P.Nikonowicz 1998 J. Mol. Biol. 280 639 9677294
1bja The activation domain of the MotA transcription factor from bacteriophage T4. M.S.Finnin, M.P.Cicero, C.Davies, S.J.Porter, S.W.White, K.N.Kreuzer 1997 EMBO J. 16 1992 9155025
1c0o Structure and Thermodynamics of Metal Binding in the P5 Helix of a Group I Intron Ribozyme G.Colmenarejo, I.Tinoco Jr. 1999 J. Mol. Biol. 290 119 10388561
1c2p Crystal Structure of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase from Hepatitis C Virus Reveals a Fully Encircled Active Site C.A.Lesburg, M.B.Cable, E.Ferrari, Z.Hong, A.F.Mannarino, P.C.Weber 1999 Nat. Struct. Biol. 6 937 10504728
1cez Structural basis for initiation of transcription from an RNA polymerase- promoter complex [published erratum appears in Nature 1999 Jul 1;400(6739):89] G.M.Cheetham, D.Jeruzalmi, T.A.Steitz 1999 Nature 399 80 10331394
1cki Three-dimensional structure of mammalian casein kinase I: molecular basis for phosphate recognition. K.L.Longenecker, P.J.Roach, T.D.Hurley 1996 J. Mol. Biol. 257 618 8648628
1ckj
1coo Solution structure of the activator contact domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit. Y.H.Jeon, T.Negishi, M.Shirakawa, T.Yamazaki, N.Fujita, A.Ishihama, Y.Kyogoku 1995 Science 270 1495 7491496
1csj Crystal Structure of the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of Hepatitis C Virus S.Bressanelli, L.Tomei, A.Roussel, I.Incitti, R.L.Vitale, M.Mathieu, R.De Francesco, F.A.Rey 1999 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 96 13034 10557268
1d3u The Structural Basis for the Oriented Assembly of a TBP/Tfb/Promoter Complex O.Littlefield, Y.Korkhin, P.B.Sigler 1999 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 96 13668 10570130
1d4r The 2 a Structure of Helix 6 of the Human Signal Recognition Particle RNA K.Wild, O.Weichenrieder, G.A.Leonard, S.Cusack 1999 Structure (London) 7 1345 10574798
1dd9 Structure of the RNA Polymerase Domain of E. Coli Primase J.L.Keck, D.D.Roche, A.S.Lynch, J.M.Berger 2000 Science 287 2482 10741967
1dde
1dhm Solution structure of the DNA-binding domain of a human papillomavirus E2 protein: evidence for flexible DNA-binding regions. H.Liang, A.M.Petros, R.P.Meadows, H.S.Yoon, D.A.Egan, K.Walter, T.F.Holzman, T.Robins, S.W.Fesik 1996 Biochemistry 35 2095 8652551
1doq The Structure and the Characteristic DNA Binding Property of the C-Terminal Domain of the RNA Polymerase Alpha Subunit from Thermus Thermophilus T.Wada, T.Yamazaki, Y.Kyogoku 2000 J. Biol. Chem. 275 16057 10821859
1drz Crystal structure of a hepatitis delta virus ribozyme [see comments] A.R.Ferre-D'Amare, K.Zhou, J.A.Doudna 1998 Nature 395 567 9783582
1duh Crystal Structure of the Ffh and EF-G Binding Sites in the Conserved Domain Iv of Escherichia Coli 4.5S RNA L.Jovine, T.Hainzl, C.Oubridge, W.G.Scott, J.Li, T.K.Sixma, A.Wonacott, T.Skarzynski, K.Nagai 2000 Structure (London) 8 527 10801497
1dxp Inhibition of the Hepatitis C Virus Ns3/4A Protease the Crystal Structures of Two Protease-Inhibitor Complexes S.Di Marco, M.Rizzi, C.Volpari, M.Walsh, F.Narjes, S.Colarusso, R.De Francesco, V.G.Matassa, M.Sollazzo 52 J. Biol. Chem. 275 71 10702283
1dy8
1dy9
1dzf Crystal Structure of Rpb5, a Universal Eukaryotic RNA Polymerase Subunit and Trascription Factor Interaction Target F.Todone, R.O.J.Weinzierl, P.Brick, S.Onesti 2000 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97 6306 10841537
1e6c Biochemical and X-Ray Crystallographic Studies on Shikimate Kinase: The Important Structural Role of the P-Loop Lysine T.Krell, J.Maclean, D.J.Boam, A.Cooper, M.Resmini, K.Brocklehurst, S.M.Kelly, N.C.Price, A.J.Lapthorn, J.R.Coggins 2001 Protein Sci. 10 1137 11369852
1e8o Structure and Assembly of the Alu Domain of the Mammalian Signal Recognition Particle O.Weichenrieder, K.Wild, K.Strub, S.Cusack 2000 Nature 408 167 11089964
1e8s
1ee4 Crystallographic Analysis of the Specific Yet Versatile Recognition of Distinct Nuclear Localization Signals by Karyopherin Alpha E.Conti, J.Kuriyan 2000 Structure (London) 8 329 10745017
1ef4 Solution Structure of the Essential RNA Polymerase Subunit Rpb10 from Methanobacterium Thermoautotrophicum C.D.Mackereth, C.H.Arrowsmith, A.M.Edwards, L.P.Mcintosh 2000 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97 6316 10841539
1eik Solution Structure of the RNA Polymerase Subunit Rpb5 from Methanobacterium Thermoautotrophicum A.Yee, V.Booth, A.Dharamsi, A.Engel, A.M.Edwards, C.H.Arrowsmith 2000 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 97 6311 10841538
1eor Solution Structure of Cobalt(III)Hexammine Complexed to the Gaaa Tetraloop, and Metal-Ion Binding to Ga Mismatches S.Ruedisser, I.Tinoco Jr. 2000 J. Mol. Biol. 295 1211 10653698
1f9l
1eqf Structure and Function of a Human Tafii250 Double Bromodomain Module R.H.Jacobson, A.G.Ladurner, D.S.King, R.Tjian 2000 Science 288 1422 10827952
1ezj Tetrameric Coiled Coil Domain of Sendai Virus Phosphoprotein N.Tarbouriech, J.Curran, R.W.H.Ruigrok, W.P.Burmeister 2000 Nat. Struct. Biol. 7 777 10966649
1f6x Solution Structure and Metal-Ion Binding of the P4 Element from Bacterial Rnase P RNA M.Schmitz, I.Tinoco Jr. 2000 RNA 6 1212 10999599
1f6z
1f78
1f79
1f7f
1f7g
1f7h
1f7i
1f84 Structures of Two Essential Domains for Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site Function P.J.Lukavsky, G.A.Otto, A.M.Lancaster, P.Sarnow, J.D.Puglisi 2000 Nat. Struct. Biol. 7 1105 11101890
1f85
1fhk Structure and Function of the Conserved 690 Hairpin in Escherichia Coli 16 S Ribosomal RNA. II. NMR Solution Structure S.V.Morosyuk, P.R.Cunningham, J.Santalucia Jr. 2001 J. Mol. Biol. 307 197 11243814
1fje Molecular Basis of Sequence-Specific Recognition of Pre-Ribosomal RNA by Nucleolin F.H.T.Allain, P.Bouvet, T.Dieckmann, J.Feigon 2000 EMBO J. 19 6870 11118222
1fli Solution structure of the ets domain of Fli-1 when bound to DNA. H.Liang, X.Mao, E.T.Olejniczak, D.G.Nettesheim, L.Yu, R.P.Meadows, C.B.Thompson, S.W.Fesik 1994 Nat. Struct. Biol. 1 871 7773776
1fqz A Potential RNA Drug Target in the Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosomal Entry Site R.Klinck, E.Westhof, S.Walker, M.Afshar, A.Collier, F.Aboul-Ela 2000 RNA 6 1423 11073218
1g71 Crystal Structure of a DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (DNA Primase) M.A.Augustin, R.Huber, J.T.Kaiser 2001 Nat. Struct. Biol. 8 57 1135672
1gid Crystal structure of a group I ribozyme domain: principles of RNA packing. J.H.Cate, A.R.Gooding, E.Podell, K.Zhou, B.L.Golden, C.E.Kundrot, T.R.Cech, J.A.Doudna 1996 Science 273 1678 8781224
1go3 Structure of an Archaeal Homolog of the Eukaryotic RNA Polymerase II Rpb4/Rpb7 Complex F.Todone, P.Brick, F.Werner, R.O.J.Weinzierl, S.Onesti 2001 Mol. Cell 8 1137 11741548
1gx5 A Structural Analysis of the Hepatitis C Virus RNA Polymerase in Complex with Ribonucleotides S.Bressanelli, L.Tomei, F.A.Rey, R.De Francesco 2002 J. Virol. 76 3482 11884572
1gx6
1h38 Structure of a T7 RNA Polymerase Elongation Complex at 2.9 A Resolution T.H.Tahirov, D.Temiakov, M.Anikin, V.Patlan, W.Mcallist D.Vassylyev, S.Yokoyama 2002 Nature 420 43 12422209
1h3l Identification and Structure of the Anti-Sigma Factor-Binding Domain of the Disulfide-Stress Regulated Sigma Factor Sigr from Streptomyces Coelicolor L.Wei, C.E.M.Stevenson, N.Burton, P.Jakimowicz, M.S.B.Paget, M.J.Buttner, D.M.Lawson, C.Kleanthous 2002 J. Mol. Biol. 323 225 12381317
1h3o Crystal Structure of a Subcomplex of Human TFIID Formed by TBP-Associated Factors Htaf4 (Htafii135) and Htaf12 (Htafii20) S.Werten, A.Mitschler, C.Romier, Y.-G.Gangloff, S.Thuault, I.Davidson, D.Moras 2002 J. Biol. Chem. 277 45502 12237304
1h40 The Structure of an Ff Domain from Human Hypa/Fbp11 M.D.Allen, A.Friedler, O.Schon, M.Bycroft 2002 J. Mol. Biol. 323 411 12381297
1hc8 A Compact RNA Tertiary Structure Contains a Buried Backbone-K+ Complex G.L.Conn, A.G.Gittis, E.E.Lattman, V.K.Misra, D.E.Draper 2002 J. Mol. Biol. 318 963 12054794
1hfz Crystal structures of guinea-pig, goat and bovine alpha-lactalbumin highlight the enhanced conformational flexibility of regions that are significant for its action in lactose synthase. A.C.Pike, K.Brew, K.R.Acharya 1996 Structure 4 691 8805552
1hhs A Mechanism for Initiating RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerization S.J.Butcher, J.M.Grimes, E.V.Makeyev, D.H.Bamford, D.I.Stuart 2001 Nature 410 235 11242087
1hht
1hi0
1hi1
1hi8
1hlx Structure of the P1 helix from group I self-splicing introns. F.H.Allain, G.Varani 1995 J. Mol. Biol. 250 333 7608979
1hmj RNA polymerase subunit H features a beta-ribbon motif within a novel fold that is present in archaea and eukaryotes. A.Thiru, M.Hodach, J.J.Eloranta, V.Kostourou, R.O.Weinzierl, S.Matthews 1999 J. Mol. Biol. 287 753 10191143
1hqm Bacterial RNA Polymerase Subunit Omega and Eukaryotic RNA Polymerase Subunit Rpb6 are Sequence, Structural, and Functional Homologs and Promote RNA Polymerase Assembly L.Minakhin, S.Bhagat, A.Brunning, E.A.Campbell, S.A.Darst, R.H.Ebright, K.Severinov 2001 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98 892 11158566
1hr2 Structural Basis of the Enhanced Stability of a Mutant Ribozyme Domain and a Detailed View of RNA-Solvent Interactions K.Juneau, E.R.Podell, D.J.Harrington, T.R.Cech 2001 Structure 9 221 11286889
1hwq A Ph Controlled Conformational Switch in the Cleavage Site of the Vs Ribozyme Substrate RNA J.C.Flinders, T.Dieckmann 2001 J. Mol. Biol. 308 665 11350168
1i3q Structural Basis of Transcription: RNA Polymerase II at 2.8 Angstrom Resolution P.Cramer, D.A.Bushnell, R.D.Kornberg 2001 Science 292 1863 11313498
1i50
1i3x Solution Structure of the a Loop of 23S Ribosomal RNA S.C.Blanchard, J.D.Puglisi 2001 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98 3720 11259644
1i6h Structural Basis of Transcription: An RNA Polymerase II Elongation Complex at 3.3 A Resolution A.L.Gnatt, P.Cramer, J.Fu, D.A.Bushnell, R.D.Kornberg 2001 Science 292 1876 11313499
1i6u Detailed Analysis of RNA-Protein Interactions within the Ribosomal Protein S8-Rrna Complex from the Archaeon Methanococcus Jannaschii S.Tishchenko, A.Nikulin, N.Fomenkova, N.Nevskaya, O.Nikonov, P.Dumas, H.Moine, B.Ehresmann, C.Ehresmann, W.Piendl, V.Lamzin, M.Garber, S.Nikonov 2001 J. Mol. Biol. 311 311 11478863
1i6v Structural Mechanism for Rifampicin Inhibition of Bacterial RNA Polymerase E.A.Campbell, N.Korzheva, A.Mustaev, K.Murakami, A.Goldfarb, S.A.Darst 2001 Cell (Cambridge,Mass.) 104 901 11290327
1idv Solution Structure of the Domain Iiic of Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site K.Kaluarachchi, C.A.Rynbrand, S.M.Lemon, D.G.Gorenstein 2004 J. Mol. Biol. 343 805 15476802
1iw7 Crsytal Structure of a Bacterial RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme at 2.6A Resolution D.G.Vassylyev, S.Sekine, O.Laptenko, J.Lee, M.N.Vassylyeva, S.Borukhov, S.Yokoyama 2002 Nature 417 712 12000971
1j2x Molecular Mechanism of Fcp1 Phosphatase Recruitment by Transcription Factor Iif K.Kamada, R.G.Roeder, S.K.Burley 2003 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 100 2296 12591941
1j4y Solution Conformations of Unmodified and A37N6-Dimethylallyl Modified Anticodon Stem-Loops of Escherichia Coli tRNAphe J.Cabello-Villegas, M.E.Winkler, E.P.Nikonowicz 2002 J. Mol. Biol. 319 1015 12079344
1kka
1jid Crystal Structure of an Early Protein-RNA Assembly Complex of the Signal Recognition Particle K.Wild, I.Sinning, S.Cusack 2001 Science 294 598 11641499
1ju7 NMR Structure and Dynamics of the RNA-Binding Site for the Histone Mrna Stem-Loop Binding Protein E.S.Dejong, W.F.Marzluff, E.P.Nikonowicz 2002 RNA 8 83 11871662
1jwc
1k83 Structural Basis of Transcription: Alpha-Amanitin-RNA Polymerase II Cocrystal at 2.8 A Resolution D.A.Bushnell, P.Cramer, R.D.Kornberg 2002 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 99 1218 11805306
1k8s Solution Conformation of a Bulged Adenosine Base in an RNA Duplex by Relaxation Matrix Refinement V.Thiviyanathan, A.B.Guliaev, N.B.Leontis, D.G.Gorenstein 2000 J. Mol. Biol. 300 1143 10903860
1khv Crystal Structure of Active and Inactive Conformations of a Caliciviral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase K.K.Ng, M.M.Cherney, A.L.Vazquez, A.Machin, J.M.Alonso, F.Parra, M.N.James 2002 J. Biol. Chem. 277 1381 11677245
1khw
1kks Structure of the Histone Mrna Hairpin Required for Cell Cycle Regulation of Histone Gene Expression K.Zanier, I.Luyten, C.Crombie, B Muller, D.Schuemperli, J.P.Linge, M.Nilges, M.Sattler 2002 RNA 8 29 11871659
1ku2 Structure of the Bacterial RNA Polymerase Promoter Specificity Sigma Subunit E.A.Campbell, O.Muzzin, M.Chlenov, J.L.Sun, C.A.Olson, O.Weinman, M.L.Trester-Zedlitz, S.A.Darst 2002 Mol. Cell 9 527 11931761
1ku3
1ku7
1l9a Crystal Structure of Srp19 in Complex with the S Domain of Srp RNA and its Implication for the Assembly of the Signal Recognition Particle C.Oubridge, A.Kuglstatter, L.Jovine, K.Nagai 2002 Mol. Cell 9 1251 12086622
1l9k An RNA CAP (Nucleoside-2'-O-) Methyltransferase in the Flavivirus RNA Polymerase Ns5: Crystal Structure and Functional Characterization M.P.Egloff, D.Benarroch, B.Selisko, J.L.Romette, B.Canard 2002 EMBO J. 21 2757 12032088
1l9u Structural Basis of Transcription Initiation: RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme at 4 A Resolution K.S.Murakami, S.Masuda, S.A.Darst 2002 Science 296 1280 12016306
1l9z Structural Basis of Transcription Initiation: An RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme-DNA Complex K.S.Murakami, S.Masuda, E.A.Campbell, O.Muzzin, S.A.Darst 2002 Science 296 1285 12016307
1lb2 Structural Basis of Transcription Activation: The Structure of CAP-Alphactd-DNA Complex B.Benoff, H.Yang, C.L.Lawson, G.Parkinson, J.Lui, E.Blatter, Y.W.Ebright, H.M.Berman, R.H.Ebright 2002 Science 297 1562 12202833
1lba The structure of bacteriophage T7 lysozyme, a zinc amidase and an inhibitor of T7 RNA polymerase. X.Cheng, X.Zhang, J.W.Pflugrath, F.W.Studier 1994 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 91 4034 8171031
1ldk Structure of the Cul1-Rbx1-Skp1-F Boxskp2 Scf Ubiquitin Ligase Complex N.Zheng, B.A.Schulman, L.Song, J.J.Miller, P.D.Jeffrey, P.Wang, C.Chu, D.M.Koepp, S.J.Elledge, M.Pagano, R.C.Conaway, J.W.Conaway, J.W.Harper, N.P.Pavletich 2002 Nature 416 703 11961546
1lqc Refined structure of lac repressor headpiece (1-56) determined by relaxation matrix calculations from 2D and 3D NOE data: change of tertiary structure upon binding to the lac operator. M.Slijper, A.M.Bonvin, R.Boelens, R.Kaptein 1996 J. Mol. Biol. 259 761 8683581
1mey A 2.2 A resolution crystal structure of a designed zinc finger protein bound to DNA. C.A.Kim, J.M.Berg 1996 Nat. Struct. Biol. 3 940 8901872
1mfk Structure of Prokaryotic Secis Mrna Hairpin and its Interaction with Elongation Factor Selb D.Fourmy, E.Guittet, S.Yoshizawa 2002 J. Mol. Biol. 324 137 12421564
1mfq Induced Structural Changes of 7Sl RNA During the Assembly of Human Signal Recognition Particle A.Kuglstatter, C.Oubridge, K.Nagai 2002 Nat. Struct. Biol. 9 740 12244299
1mfy A Single-Nucleotide Natural Variation (U4 to C4) in an Influenza a Virus Promoter Exibits a Large Structural Change: Implications for Differential Viral RNA Synthesis by RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase M.-K.Lee, S.-H.Bae, C.-J.Park, H.-K.Cheong, C.Cheong, B.-S.Choi 2003 Nucleic Acids Res. 31 1216 12582241
1mnx The Solution Structure of the Loop E Region of the 5S Rrna from Spinach Chloroplasts P.Vallurupalli, P.B.Moore 2003 J. Mol. Biol. 325 843 12527295
1msw Structural Basis for the Transition from Initiation to Elongation Transcription in T7 RNA Polymerase Y.W.Yin, T.A.Steitz 2002 Science 298 1387 12242451
1n35 RNA Synthesis in a Cage--Structural Studies of Reovirus Polymerase [Lambda] 3 Y.Tao, D.L.Farsetta, M.L.Nibert, S.C.Harrison 2002 Cell (Cambridge,Mass.) 111 733 12464184
1n38
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  • Bruce Alberts, Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts and Peter Walter 2002 Molecular Biology of the Cell 6 , Garland , New York ,



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